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2014  (Vol. 4, No: 1)

Rejecting the Masculinity of War: Was Alice Auma Lakwena of the Holy Spirit Movement the Messiah of the Acholi?

Corresponding Author: Charles Amone

Vol. 4, (1): 01-07


In Africa, women are generally excluded from any debate on belligerence, and war is perceived as the prerogative of men. Women only get involved in war as passive victims of the brutality inflicted on them by their masculine contemporaries. Between 1986 and 1988, Alice Lakwena of the Holy Spirit Movement in Uganda, defied this long-established concept of the patrilineality of warfare. In this article, the author analyzes the rise of the Holy Spirit Movement (HSM) as one of the myriad rebellions that emerged to challenge the authority of the newly established National Resistance Movement (NRM) in Uganda in 1986, and illustrates how Alice Lakwena excelled where men had failed.


21 Jun 2014

27 Jul 2014

Study of General Health Conditions of Students of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences of Iran in Freshman Year Compared to Senior Year

Sarah Vafaee, Fariba Tairi, Fardin Gharibi

Corresponding Author: Fariba Tairi

Vol. 4, (1): 09-14


Objectives: The study was conducted in order to determine and assess the general health conditions of Students of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in Freshman Year (2007) Compared to Senior Year (2011) .

Materials and Methods: The descriptiveـanalytical study was conducted on 100 students admitted in different medical fields in the academic years of 2007-2008 in two sequences " arriving at university" and "graduated time ". They assessed using the 28-item General Health questionnaire "Goldberg". Finally, data were analysed by spss18 and descriptive and inferential statistical methods.

Result: At the arriving time, 3% of students were ranked higher than cutoff point 23 while this figure increased to 21% for the same group of students at the time of graduation. The results indicate no significant relationship between suspected cases of mental disorder and demographic factors of gender and marital well as, the difference between the mean of somatic complaints, anxiety and maladjustment social in terms of gender and field in the studied subject in the arrival and at the graduation time was no significant.

Conclusion: Mental disorders such as social maladjustment, anxiety and depression can be seen more in senior students so offering the stress management and coping strategies during the study at the university seems essential.


13 Apr 2014
   27 Jun 2014

The Comparison of Social Information Processing in Prosocial and Withdrawal Children aged 9-11 in Tehran

Pedram Parisa, Akbarzadeh Nasrin , Darviseh Zahra

Corresponding Author: Pedram Parisa

Vol. 4, (1): 15-22


The purpose of this study was to investigate the Social Information Processing of social withdrawal children. It was assumed that prosocial and isolated children are different in terms of their information processing. The method of purposive sampling was used and 172 boys and girls (86 social withdrawal and 86 matched), aged between 9-11 years were chosen from primary schools of Tehran. In order to measure and evaluate the sample, teachers' withdrawal checklist and inventory of social information processing was used. Statistical methods used in this study include: two-way ANOV and Scheffe’s post-hoc test. Results indicate that isolated and prosocial children are significantly different from each other regarding the components of information processing.


03 May 2014 
   04 Aug 2014