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2015  (Vol. 6, No: 1)

Kamal Ramooshjan, Jamal rahmani, Mohammad Ali Sobhanollahi, Abolfazl Mirzazadeh*

Vol. 6, (1): 001-013


Abstract

One of the most important factors leading to a company's success is its location. The branches have a strategic importance on an organization’s performance and its competitiveness. The purpose of this study is to present a decision-making model for selecting the most appropriate location for the branch of a bank. The research considers various types of uncertainties in evaluation using a hybrid approach, specifically, a combination of fuzzy set theory and a discrete multi-criteria method based on prospect theory in uncertainty (known as TODIM in Portuguese). This methodology considers incomplete and imprecise judgments. We have demonstrated the validity of the Methodology through a case study.

Keywords: bank branches, decision with uncertainties, location, TODIM

Submitted
 Accepted
July 2014
October 2014
 

The Governing Elite and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria: An Appraisal of the Fourth Republic

Jide Ifedayo IBIETAN* , Olumuyiwa Olutosin AJAYI


Vol. 6, (1): 014-021

Abstract

The general objective of this paper is to examine the impact of the political process through the governing elites on democratic consolidation in Nigeria’s fourth republic. The paper argued that successive governing elites in Nigeria assimilated the character and attributes of the colonial administrators by being predatory and exploitative, thus have failed to maintain any form of social contract with the Nigerian people through governance. With the adoption of secondary method of data collection and Elite theory as framework of analysis, the paper observed that the much expected democratic dividends are still lacking and the requirements for democratic consolidation are yet to be in place. The paper suggested that the governing elite must tackle multiple tasks of building consensus in the political process, reform institutions, govern with sufficient accountability and uphold constitutionalism.

Keywords: consolidation; democracy; elite; governance; republic

Submitted

   Accepted
October 2014
January 2015
 

Abstract

Malaysia has a buoyant and fast growing economy that has made it a prime destination for foreign direct investment by multinational companies. Wherever these global companies set base each one inevitably attract foreign workers known as expatriates. The expatriates help the Multinational Corporations (MNC) maintain the organizations structure, rules and regulations and fill in local labour shortages. Expatriates are bound to go through a process of adjustments (expatriation process) to the local norms and culture of the country they live and work in. Expatriates complete the expatriation process upon repatriating back to their country of origin. The experiences garnered by the expatriate in a foreign land are known as culture shock during the time that experienced at repatriating home are known as reverse culture shock both with inherent psychological symptoms. This study is based on the quantitative method of research employing both descriptive and analytical research types. Data collection relied on both primary and secondary sources. Questionnaire administration made use of a novel combination of the traditional hard copy distributed directly to the sample population and e-platform: sending to various websites of expatriate organizations in Malaysia. This study investigates how reverse culture shock may be minimized through the use of technology. We try to gauge this by finding out the preferred technological tool used by an expatriate in Malaysia to communicate with home. The study identified the symptoms associated with reverse culture shock as the dependent variable and the technological communication tools as the independent variable. The research went further to ascertain from respondents if the expatriates felt communication has indeed helped in reducing the reverse culture shock. The results of the research suggest that an overwhelming several number of expatriates concur to the fact that communicating with their home country with the aid of modern technology does mitigate the symptoms of reverse culture shock upon repatriating. In conclusion, the researcher is of the view that multinational companies put more emphasis on preparing the expatriate for culture shock on postings abroad, but negate to do the same for the repatriate on coming back home. These companies should encourage their employees to communicate with their home country using technology so as to mitigate the symptoms of reverse culture shock. They will find that employees who are less disturbed by reverse culture shock are in a state of good mental health to put in their best at their workstations.

Keywords: expatriates, repatriates, culture shock, reverse culture shock, mobile phone, email, social media, microblogging.

Submitted
 Accepted
December 2014
  January 2015
 

Famine in Late 19th Century India: Natural or Man-Made

Hareet Kumar Meena


Vol. 06 (01), 2015, 035-043

Abstract

Famine has been considered as a frequent characteristic in the history of India. However, due to several reasons the magnitude of famine reached its optimum point in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on south-west summer monsoon which is sometimes crucial in securing water for cultivation and the scarcity of which may lead to famine. In British period droughts, combined with mal-administrative policies, have led to major Indian famines as the Central Indian famine (1868-70), the Great Famine of 1876–78, severe starvation of 1896-97, etc. In Colonial rule agricultural labourers, cultivators and rural artisans remained primary victims of famines. Historical evidence portrays that famines in Colonial India resulted in more than 60 million deaths over the course of the eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Famines in British India were severe enough to have a substantial impact on the long-term population growth of the country. These famines were typically followed by various infectious diseases such as bubonic plague and influenza, which killed a large section of population already destabilized by starvation. The Railway transportation multiplied the scale of such diseases as people migrated in search of food and work from the affected regions. This paper portrays the causes, course and consequences of famines in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries India. It speaks how the Industrial Revolution in England and introduction of railways proved catalyst in the frequent occurrence of famines. The paper also differentiates between natural and man-made famine.

Keywords: drought, epidemic, famine commission, railway


Submitted
 Accepted
October 2014
 January 2015