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Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1–27 (May–June 2014)

Mechanical Properties and Micro – Structural Studies of Some Agro – Wastes - HDPE Composites 

Original Research Article

Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research Vol. 1 (1), 2014, 2–6

Y. E. Ishidi


Abstract

In the quest to clean up the environment, reduce material cost and produce material with unique properties for different applications; three different agro wastes were used to reinforce high density polyethylene (HDPE). This was achieved using two roll mill for the mixing of fillers into polymer matrix. The formulated composites were subjected to different mechanical property tests and micro – structural analysis: Advanced Material Testing Machine and Quanta 200 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) were used for the test. The results obtained showed that the different agro wastes impacted on the mechanical properties of the high density polyethylene (HDPE) significantly and the ESEM showed a fair interaction of the various agro wastes with the polymer matrix. This was evident in the structures formed.

Keywords: EGR (high density polyethylene – groundnut shell composites); ECO (high density polyethylene – coconut shell composites); EPK (high density polyethylene – palm kernel nut shell composites); EGP (high density polyethylene – E-glass composites) and ESEM (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope)


Submitted
Received in revised
Accepted
21 May 2014
16 Jun 2014
19 Jun 2014
 

Numerical Study of Forced Convection in a Rectangular Channel 

Original Research Article

Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research Vol. 1 (1), 2014, 7–11

Salim Gareh

Abstract

We studied the phenomenon in this section of the laminar flow in a rectangular channel. Or utilization this channel in a rectangular solar collector. To solve this problem we used the finite volume method. There are four such that the continuity equation, the Navier- stocks and thermal energy equation. A program to solve the Navier-stocks with the schematic SIMPLE is used. The results show that this problem connects with Re whenever the number of the boundary layer increases Re decreases.

Keywords: Fluid mechanics, Heat transfer, Finite volume simulation.

Received

Received in revised
  Accepted
18 May 2014
08 Jun 2014
19 Jun 2014
 

Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies of Biosorption of Cadmium (ii) from Aqueous Solution onto Garden Grass (GAG) 

Original Research Article

Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research Vol. 1 (1), 2014, 12–22

B.O. Evbuomwan, M.M. Atuka


Abstract

The biosorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solution onto garden grass (GAG) using the batch adsorption technique was investigated. The bonds on the active sites of the adsorbents were determined before and after, which showed that the major functional groups (COOH, RNH, CH, OH-) on the biosorbent surface took part in the metal ion uptake process. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, agitation time, initial metal concentration and temperature were also investigated. The fitness of experimental data to Equilibrium Isotherm models, kinetic models were tested and thermodynamic parameters calculated. Results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of Cd(II) onto GAG were 3.82mg/g. The values of the separation factors (RL) are in the range of 0-1 which indicates favourable biosorption. The biosorption process of Cd(II) onto GAG was favoured by Langmuir and Freundlich models. Results also showed that the pseudo-second order equation provided the best model for the biosorption process. Thermodynamics parameters evaluation gave a positive value of ΔHo, indicating the endothermic nature of the process. The negative values of the Gibbs free energy at all the temperature showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and the positive value of ΔSo reflects good affinity of Cadmium ions towards the garden grass. The results have established that GAG has a good potential to be used as biosorbent for the removal of Cadmium from waste water.

Keywords: Biosorption; Garden Grass; Cadmium; Isotherm; kinetic.


Received
  Received in revised
Accepted
10 Jun 2014
24 Jun 2014
  25 Jun 2014