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Volume 5, Issue 4, (July – August 2016)


Recent Advances and Applications of Cyclic and Polymeric inorganic Nanocomposites

A Review

Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research Vol. 5 (4), 2016, 58–67

F.S. Nworie *, M.E. Ugwu, S.O. Eluu and C. Ezekwena,

 

 

Abstract

The development of cyclic inorganic polymers which are compounds used in polymer matrix nanocomposites as nanofillers because of their unique properties has been on the increase. To allow copolymerisation of functional organosilanes, macromonomers, and metal alkoxides, encapsulation of organic components within sol–gel derived silica or metallic oxides, and organic functionalization of nanofillers, nanoclays or other compounds with lamellar structures of the macromolecules, the nanopores lead to uncommonly close interactions between the polymer and the inorganic phase, and some uncommon characteristics can be observed when compared with nanofillers. Many review articles have centred on polymer/nonporous nanofiller nanocomposites, a few review articles focus on polymer/mesoporous silica nanocomposites but there is dearth of research review on the cyclic inorganic and polymeric nanocomposites of  polysiloxanes,polysilanes and polyphosphazenes. There are some problems associated with the synthesis and application of these polymers but its advantages outweighs its cost and concern. The possibility of tailoring a number of their unique properties (combining the advantages of the inorganic nanofillers and the organic polymers), changing the size of these polymers and so on has made it promising in so many areas. Cyclic inorganic and polymeric nanocomosites not only present an innovative alternative to design new materials and compounds for academic research, but their uncommon, improved or unusual characteristics allow the development of promising industrial applications as catalysts, sensors, optic-electronics, ionics, mechanics, functional smart coatings, fuel and solar cells, energy, environment ,medicine and elastomers.

 

Keywords: Cyclic-polymeric; Inorganic compounds; Nanocomposites; Nanofillers; Applications.


Received

Received in revised
  Accepted
27 April 2016
-
13 August 2016
 

Photocatalytic Degradation of Malachite Green Using Silver Nanoparticles Synthesised from Gooseberry Extract

Original Research

Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research Vol. 5 (4), 2016, 68–73

S. Pakya Lakshmi, S. Dhanya and D. Sheeba *

 

 

Abstract

The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost effective and environmental friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using gooseberry extract is investigated. This extract acts as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the production of silver nanoparticles. The gooseberry extract is added to 2 mM silver nitrate solution, after exposing the silver ions to the extract, rapid reduction of silver ions is observed leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles is primarily detected within 10 minutes by the change of colour from colourless to reddish-brown. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized by using UV-Visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The UV-Visible spectrum shows an absorption peak at 429 nm due to Surface Plasmon Resonance. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesised silver nanoparticle is examined by the degradation of malachite green under visible light illumination. The rate of photodegradation and degradation efficiency of malachite green with silver nanoparticles for one hour and forty minutes is 1.18 x 102 sec-1 and 69.23 %. The absorption kinetics of the malachite green follows the pseudo-first order mechanism.

 

Keywords: Green synthesis; Gooseberry extract; Silver nitrate; Silver nanoparticles; Photocatalytic degradation; Degradation efficiency.


Received
  Received in revised
Accepted
11 June 2016
10 August 2016
13 August 2016
 

One Step Synthesis of Conducting Polymer Nano Composite as a Sensor Material

Original Research

Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research Vol. 5 (4), 2016, 74–77

Narges Ajami *

 

 

Abstract

Present article is an attempt to develop a method to increase the conductivity of poly (methylene blue).I report one step synthesis of poly (methylene blue) (PMB)/ Manganese (Mn) film on the graphite electrode by pulse galvanostatic method. PMB film with good electrochemical stability was obtained by optimization of synthesis conditions. The presence of Manganese in the composite films was confirmed by surface microscopy techniques. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of the working electrode. Modified electrodes PMB/ Mnwere examined for their redox process and electrocatalytic activities towards the oxidation of methanol in alkaline solutions. In cyclic voltammetry studies, in the presence of methanol PMB/ Mn modified electrode shows a significantly higher response for methanol oxidation.

 

Keywords: Conducting polymer; Methylene blue; Manganese; Electrocatalytic; Methanol.

 

Received
 Received in revised
 Accepted
26 July 2016
-
 14 August 2016
 

Influence of film thickness on optical and electrical properties of Nickel Oxide (NiO) thin films

Original Research

Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research Vol. 5 (4), 2016, 78–84

Selma Dendouga, Said Benramache*, Said Lakel

 

Abstract

The aim of this work is to study the influence of the film thickness on the optical and electrical properties of NiO thin films. For this; we use nickel Oxide (NiO) thin films which has been prepared on glass substrates by the Sol–Gel (spin-coating) technique using nickel nitrate hexahydrate (Ni(NO3)2.6H2O) as source materials. The coating process was repeated for 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 times to obtain a thin film. The optical and electrical properties were found to be dependent for each film thickness. For smeller film thickness the thin films showed high transmission property (over 88 %) in the visible wavelength region. The optical band gap was found to be in the range of 3.94–4.06 eV depending on the film thickness. The minimum value of Urbach energy was 0.182 eV. In the end, the electrical measurements are investigated by the four-point method, the results shows that the good electrical conductivity was found at 171 nm.

 

Keywords: NiO; Thin films; Film thickness, Sol–Gel (Spin coating) method.

 

Received
 Received in revised
 Accepted
02 August 2016
 -
 17 August 2016