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2014  (Vol. 2, No: 2)

Pain: Aspects and treatment in Greek antiquity

Evangelos Fradelos, Georgia Fradelou, Ekaterini Kasidi

Corresponding Author:  Evangelos Fradelos

Vol. 2, (2): 29-36


Background: The purpose of this study is to describe the aspects of pain and his treatment as they were stated in Ancient Greece.

Material and Methods: The methodology of historical research was used. Publications and articles considering the subject was used.

Results:In ancient Greece understanding pain had the same value as treatment, and occupied many historians, tragedians and philosophers. The pain in the beginning it was treated by combination of religious rituals ( incantations ) and herbs. Asclepius and his family (wife and children) were the first recorded therapeutic group. From the Hippocratic period, and then we see the religious element begins to fade and scientific practices in pain management are in used. Herbs, plants, substances, special diets and healing techniques such as hydrotherapy are now to the forefront.

Conclusions: Basics in pain management in ancient Greece were plants and herbs and their derivatives in either beverage or pad etc. Indicative in ancient Greek literature there are reports nominative nepenthe , willow, mandrake, anise, etc that have to bring the capacity to soothe their pains. Some of the techniques and instruments we rescued to date average of folklore .

29 Jan 2014
18 Mar 2014

Microbiological Water Pollution in Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh

Mohammed Mehadi Hassan Chowdhury, Khadizatul Kubra, Mohammad Ruhul Amin

Corresponding Author:  Mohammed Mehadi Hassan Chowdhury

Vol. 2, (2): 37-42


Water Pollution is a common feature in Bangladesh. Microbial contamination of water is a common cause of water pollution in Bangladesh. A lot of people specially the people of hill tracts in Bangladesh deprived from pure drinking water due to water pollution. They are suffered from water born diseases and for this reason the public health condition in this community is under risk. In this study, we have represented the water quality used in hills tracts in Chittagong in Bangladesh from microbiological point of view. 29 water samples from different hills tract areas and sources which are consumed by the people of hill tracts analyzed where every water sample was unacceptable for consumption according local and international pure drinking water guidelines for microbiology. Among the 29 samples, all the samples were tested for 5 microbial parameters. The range for Total Plate Count (TPC) is too numerous to count (TNTC) in every sample, 16 samples were contaminated by total coliforms, 4 samples were contaminated by E.coli, and 6 samples were by with K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. Ringwells are highly contaminated comparatively other sources of water. Lacks of sanitation, hygiene, awareness about health, education and unavailability of water treatment lead the unwanted contamination in these sources of drinking water.

13 Jan 2014
10 Apr 2014


Surface water constitutes the main source of rural water supply in parts of Benue State. Samples of such water from three sources (ponds, rivers and streams) randomly picked from different parts of Guma L.G.A of Benue state were investigated in order to determine the extent of microbial contamination. Seasonal variation in contamination was also determined in the study which spanned over seven months. A total of one hundred and forty samples were involved in microbial analyses. Microorganisms identified and their occurrence (in percentage) includes: Escherichia coli (84:4%), Klebsiella spp (58.6%), Proteus spp (22.1%), Salmonella spp (71.4%), Streptococcus spp (57.9%), Diptheriods (63.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (40.70%), Aerobacter aerogenes (47.9%), Shigella spp (64.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42.1%) and Clostridium perfringenes (25.7%).Contamination was higher during the rainy compared to dry season (P < 0.05). The mean viable count, source of water and seasons of the year were significantly correlated. The study reveals a higher level of contamination of rural water supply by microbes compared to WHO’s recommendation of microbes in any domestic water supply source. A further study on the epidemiological implications of this finding is suggested.


15 Feb 2014

20 May 2014