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2014  (Vol. 3, No: 1)

Bacterial Agents Associated With Infantile Diarrhea and Their Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria

E. E. Duru, O. E. Agbagwa, F. E. Umoren

Corresponding Author:  E. E. Duru

Vol. 3 (1): 01-12


A study of the bacterial agents associated with infantile diarrhea along with their antibiotics susceptibility pattern were carried out in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Out of the 100 infants with diarrhea (cases) sampled, at least one bacterial isolate, probably pathogenic, was detected in 49 (49.0%) and no bacterial agent was detected in 51 (51%). Among the 20 infants without diarrhea (controls), 4 (20.0%) had a bacterial isolate while 16 (80%) had no isolate. Bacteria detected among cases arranged in order of their decreasing prevalence included; Escherichia coli (23.0%), Salmonella species (10.0%), Shigella species (8.0%), Yersinia enterocolitica (5.0%), Vibrio cholera (3.0%). Infants between the ages of 0-12 months recorded the highest frequency of bacterial isolates which decreased with increase in age. All the bacterial isolates were subjected to antibiotics sensitivity screening in which the percentage of sensitive isolates were recorded and it was observed that all the isolates showed more than 70% susceptibility to Ofloxacin, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin except Vibrio cholera, with Shigella species showing 100% susceptibility to the three antibiotics mentioned earlier and Yersinia species and Vibrio cholera showing 100% sensitivity to Ofloxacin and Gentamicin only. All the bacterial isolates showed 100% resistance to Septrin while only Escherichia coli, Shigella species, Yersinia enterocolitica and Vibrio cholera showed 100% resistance to Augumentin. Mothers of the diarrheal infants at home where some samples were collected were educated on the major routes of diarrheal transmission and how to prevent and control it as well as the impact of ORS in diarrhea control.

18 Feb 2014

27 Jun 2014


Calcium Promotes Migration and Invasion of Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma HSC5 Cells

Nguyen Dinh Thang, Bich Thuy Ly, Ichiro Yajima, Masashi Kato

Corresponding Author:  Nguyen Dinh Thang

Vol. 3 (1): 13-24


Background: Although arsenic is considered as a main cause to various diseases in many places throughout the world, arsenic could be used as an anticancer agent. Calcium presents at high concentrations in the arsenic-polluted tube well water. However, there is no report showing a correlation between calcium and cancer. We, in this study, hypothesized that other elements as well as arsenic in well water may contribute to tumorigenesis in humans.

Aim: We examined the concentration of calcium in the arsenic-polluted well water and investigated the effects of calcium on migration and invasion of human squamous cell carcinoma HSC5.

Method: Calcium concentrations in well water were measured by an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometer (ICP-MS; 7500cx, Agilent Technologies Inc, CA). Proliferation, migration and invasion of HSC5 cells were determined by crystal violet assay, scratch wound healing assay and invasion assay, respectively. Protein expression levels were measured by immunoblotting analysis. All experiments were repeated three times with statistic analysis.

Results: Our results showed significantly high levels of calcium in arsenic-polluted well water samples from An Giang Province, Vietnam. We also for the first time demonstrated that 1000 μM of calcium might have cancer-promoting effects on human squamous cell carcinoma (HSC5) cell. Calcium (1000 µM) biologically promoted proliferation, migration and invasion of HSC5 ells in vitro. Calcium (1000 µM) biochemically enhanced activities of c-SRC, FAK, N-cadherin and ERK molecules, which regulate proliferation and/or invasion, migration.

Conclusion: Taken together, our biological and biochemical findings newly suggest that the levels of calcium shown in drinking well water independently has the cancer-promoting effects on squamous cell carcinoma cell in vitro.


18 Apr 2014

5 Jul 2014