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2016  (Vol. 4, No: 1)*

The Ethyl Palmitate Is an Informative Measure for Amount and Frequency of Alcohol Consumption


Masayoshi Tsuji*, Yayoi Mori, Takehito Hayakawa, Tomoo Hidaka, Takeyasu Kakamu, Tomohiro Kumagai, Sei Sato, Hideyuki Kanda, Yoneatsu Osaki, Miki Kawazoe, Yoshito Momose, Shin-ichi Tanihara, Masaki Moriyama, Tetsuhito Fukushima

Vol. 4 (1): 001-012

Abstract

Objective: It is important to understand amount and frequency of alcohol consumption to better support people with alcohol problems. This study investigated the relationship between FAEE levels in hair and amount and frequency of alcohol consumption among the general population.

Methods: Hair samples were collected from 393 subjects. Four FAEEs (ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl stearate, and ethyl oleate) were extracted from these samples and their concentrations measured using GC/MS. The questionnaire completed by study subjects included questions about gender, age, and amount and frequency of alcohol consumption. Multi-regression analysis was performed using the amount or frequency of alcohol consumption as an objective variable and each FAEE and adjustment factors as explanatory variables.

Results: Multi-regression analysis showed that ethyl myristate (β=0.101; p= .034), ethyl palmitate (β=0.186; p< .001), and ethyl stearate (β=0.177; p< .001) differed significantly with the amount of alcohol consumption. The frequency of alcohol consumption also resulted in statistically significant differences in FAEE levels: ethyl myristate (β=0.273; p< .001), ethyl palmitate (β=0.339; p< .001), ethyl oleate (β=0.150; p= .002), and ethyl stearate (β=0.287; p< .001).

Conclusion: Hair levels of FAEEs, especially ethyl palmitate, may be suitable markers to detect excessive drinking among the general population.

Keywords: Fatty acid ethyl esters, Ethyl palmitate, Frequency of alcohol consumption, Amount of alcohol consumption, Hair

Submitted
 Accepted
June 2015

September 2015

 
Knowledge and Perception of Mothers on the Recommended Treatment for Malaria of Artemisinin–Based Combination Therapy (ACT) in Yobe State, Nigeria

Attahir Abubakar*, Nasir Lawal Sallau, Comfort Kaliyad Boman, Musa Hassan Dauda, Jamila Sulaiman Abdulkadir

Vol. 4 (1): 013-021
Abstract

A cross-sectional, descriptive survey of mothers attending private health facilities with their children in Yobe state, Nigeria. Two research assistants were trained in each of the local government areas (LGAs) for the purpose of this research. Primary data were collected from the respondents through questionnaires administered by the research assistants. A total of 1,217 mothers participated in the study; 33% were in the age range of 26–30 years, 81% of the mothers were married. Forty-six percent of mothers said that mosquitoes caused malaria and 18% defined malaria as just a disease; 97.5% of the mothers had an overall positive disposition towards artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). They confidently stated that the drug was effective, that the child had completely recovered and was doing well. The majority of the mothers recalled a range of undesirable side effects that they believed were caused by chloroquine (CQ), such as itching all over the body, extreme exhaustion, the child becoming very weak, the fever not going away for a week and sometimes the child becoming restless. The study found that the mothers of children less than five years old in Yobe state had good knowledge of the cause of malaria; they were also using the recommended drug (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The majority of the mothers not only regarded ACT as an effective anti-malarial, they also found that it significantly reduced their expenditure on dealing with a malarial episode because it did not require them to go through multiple treatment stages, as was common during the CQ era.

Keywords: Malaria, Children U5, ACT


Submitted

   Accepted
September 2015
October 2015
 

Abstract

The isolation of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants, based on traditional use or ethno medical data, is a highly promising potential approach for identifying new and effective antimalarial drug candidates. Today, a vast store of knowledge concerning therapeutic properties of medicinal plants has accumulated through either experiences or knowledge evolved and transferred to the generation of tribal people, traditional healers or practitioners. The herbs can provide starting material for isolation or synthesis of conventional drugs. The purpose of this review is giving the information regarding the medicine plant in Ethiopia. The history, availability in Ethiopia and application has been also discussed.

Keywords: Abotic; Biological; Composition; Herbal; Traditional

Submitted
 Accepted
December 2014
 December2015
 
* Preliminary version